Management and Leadership across Cultures - Part 1


The hospitality and tourism sector of United Kingdom has been observed as a culturally diverse in context of the variety of business it operates the types of customers it is serving and the range of employees occupied within it. The workforce of the sector belongs to diverse groups comprised of different genders, ethnic backgrounds, education and race. Hence, it has become a challenge for the managers to encourage simultaneously the diversity within workforce in order to maintain an effective, well-built and integrated culture in the organization. It has been observed that the diverse workforce within a service sector like hospitality and tourism sector could become competitive with each other. Hence, the role of the leader and manager enhances in tackling with these issues in integrate all the employees at a common shared goal resulting in the increased organizations’ productivity. Therefore, the paper is designed to critically evaluate different leadership and motivation theories. In addition to this, critical analyzes of the management of Cranley Garden Hotel would also be made to evaluate that how the managers of the Cranley Garden Hotel tackle the issues of cultural diversity and take measures to resolve them. The analysis would be based on deductive approach, in the end recommendations would be made, and conclusion would be drawn. We provide homework help to all the students around the world.

Critical Evaluation of Theories and Concepts Regarding Management, Leadership and Motivation in the Culturally Diverse Organization in the Hospitality Industry

Management Theories

Cultural diversity in the business environment has been a challenge for the managers of an organization over past recent years. Due to the cultural diversity among the customers, the roles and responsibilities of the manager have also increased in order to train their employees for dealing with the diversified environment. In measuring the role and issues faced by the manager of a culturally diversified organization, three most commonly used theories are critically analyzed below:

Theory X:

Theory X presented by Douglas Mc Gregory assumes that most of the employees in an organization are more interested in the situation that they are being directed rather than being empowered (Fisher, 2000). Therefore, the same attitude of employees gave rise to the management role as a tough and tight control management. However, it is observed that in a culturally diversified organization, Theory X could not be suitable, as the environment requires innovation and creativity by the employees to meet the customers need. 

Theory Y:

By analyzing, another theory, Theory Y also presented by Douglas Mc Gregory, it was observed that rather than being strict to the employees, managers should be more focused towards engaging the workers to be more committed rather than punishing them (Koontz& Weihrich, 2006). It was viewed from the theory that in order to serve the diversified customers, the imagination and creativity of employees should also be used for work problem’s solution.

Theory Z:

William Ouchi states in his theory that in order to achieve better results from their employees, managers should allow them to work in the team and groups (Montana& Charnov, 2008). This is necessary for achieving the objective of team in order to satisfy a group of culturally diversified customers by giving them access to more resources. Are you a student who works a full time job? Don't have the time to write your thesis? 

Leadership Theories


According to theory of authoritarian leadership, leadership depends on the legal, coercive and rewards power in order to influence the group or team (Northouse, 2009). The significant characteristics of authoritarian leadership are the aggressive, parental and dictatorial styles that greatly affect the way team or group respond to the leader (Mobley, 2009). Within culturally diverse organization, authoritative leadership can have negative influence on the team members because a culturally diverse organization must promote the team relationship, respect, and trust through understanding and appreciating the cultural differences but an authoritative manager within culturally diverse organization does not allow the open communication and it results in achieving the goals of the organization (Winkler, 2009).


Within an organization, participative leadership can be defined as involving the employees in the decision making process (Northouse, 2009). Managers within the culturally diverse organizations can involve the employees in the decision-making process of organization through proper communication and effective interaction (Griffin& Stacey, 2005). Participative leadership within the culturally diverse organization greatly serves to gain the organizational objectives and goals. However, it must be considered that participative leadership does not mean to empower the employees rather the involvement of employees for the decision-making is limited to only creative tasks (Northouse, 2009).


In democratic leadership, employees or team members are more participative in the decision-making process (Kane et al., 2009). Within culturally diverse organization, democratic leadership is considered as the most appropriate because this enables the employees from multiple ethnic cultural backgrounds to share their insight and ideas (Taylor, 2006). However, having democratic leadership can have certain pitfalls as it leads to difficulties in managing the employees with differences (Kane et al., 2009).

Motivational Theories

In addition to management theories, below is a critical analysis of the significant motivational theories.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Abraham Maslow saw the needs of the individuals in the form of hierarchy in order to motivate them. It could be viewed that he has arranged those needs in the order of importance as physiological need, security need, affiliation need, esteem need, and self-actualization need. It is assumed in his theory that the kind of need faced by the person, serves as a motivator to enhance his capabilities (Koontz& Weihrich, 2006). Moreover, it could also not be underestimated that the other types mentioned in the Maslow’s hierarchy only emerges in the situation when biological needs of the employees and managers are satisfied.

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

On the other hand, Frederick Herzberg presented a theory in contrast to that of Maslow, presenting that motivation among the employees and managers simply base on the factors like job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction (Davies, 2007). The theory also highlighted the role of managers in solving the issue of job dissatisfaction among the employees through the provision of hygiene factors.

Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change

In contrast to above theories, James Prochaska, defines the elements of behavior change among employees as an important area to increase motivation among the employees by the managers (Hales, 2007). In his theory, it was highlighted that the in order to bring a change in a culturally diversified organization, a manager should be much more focused towards the stages, processes and self-efficacy of employees.



Hence, it could be concluded that the managers of the Cranley Garden Hotel, UK are effectively and competently managing the issue of cultural diversity within the organization. Furthermore, the benefits of the cultural diversity could not enjoyed by an organization automatically as it has been noticed that increase in cultural diversity could result in the low productivity for business. Therefore, for a culturally diverse business environment, the role of the manager is of great significance in motivating employees to yield high returns.


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